Dr. Kalpana Kothari, Senior Consultant, Robotic Surgeon, and Chief of Gynaec Oncology department, HCG Cancer Centre Ahmedabad
Endometrial Cancer means cancer of the uterine lining. It can be of various histological types, mainly divided into two categories
- Low Risk – Endometrial Aenocarcinoma
- High Risk – Serious Carcinoma, clear all carcinoma etc
Besides these, some tumors arise from other uterus layers like carcinosarcoma, Endometrial stromal sarcoma, Leiomyosarcoma, etc.
Incidence in India is increasing due to lifestyle changes associated with a higher incidence of obesity and Type II diabetes. About 20% can be hereditary and associated with lynch syndrome.
- Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal bleeding per vagina
- Irregular Heavy periods
- Inter-menstrual bleeding
- Pelvic pain – in case of advanced disease.
When a patient comes to a gynecologist with such symptoms, after good history (anal), a per speculum examination is done to see the cervix, and a Pap smear is taken. Per vaginal examination is done, which might reveal a bulky uterus.
Endometrial Bx is obtained using a pipeline and is sent for a histopathology examination.
Radiological Investigation and Blood Tests
- MRI pelvis and screening of upper abdomen is done, which gives information about the size of the tumor, site of the tumor, and depth of the myometrial invasion, along with the presence of pelvis/paraaortic lymph nodes.
- The presence of ascites and omental disease indicates advanced disease.
- Bil mammography must be done.
- X-Ray of the chest and CT Thorax
Treatment of Endometrial Cancer
- The stage of Endometrial cancer is the most critical factor in choosing the treatment.
- Other important factors include comorbidities like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, etc.
- In young patients with early cancer, conservative treatment (high dose progesterone has to be given) can be followed by pregnancy which may require IVF, followed by surgery postpartum.
Methods of surgery